The chart below gives information about global sales of games software, CDs and DVD or video.
Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information.
The chart shows the changes in the sales of video material / DVDs, games software and CDs around the world in billions of dollars over a three-year period. It can be seen that the sales of videos / DVDs and games software have increased, while the sales of CDs have gone down slightly.
Between 2000 and 2003, the sale of videos and DVDs rose by approximately 13 billion dollars. In 2000, just under 20 billion dollars worth of these items were sold, but in 2003, this figure had risen to a little over 30 billion dollars.
The sales of games software also rose during this period, but less sharply. Sales increased from about 13 billion dollars in 2000 to just under 20 billion dollars three years later. By contrast, during the same time period, the sale of CDs fell from 35 billion dollars in 2000 to about 32.5 billion dollars in 2003.
Eating sweet foods produces acid in the mouth, which can cause tooth decay. (High acid levels are measured by low pH values)
Describe the information below and discuss the implications for dental health.
Anyone who has visited a dentist has been told that eating excessive amounts of sweets risks harming the teeth. This is because sweets lower pH levels in the mouth to dangerous levels.
When the pH level in the mouth is kept above 5.5, acidity is such that teeth are unlikely to be in danger of decay. Sweet foods, however, cause pH in the mouth to drop for a time, and the longer pH levels remain below 5.5, the greater the opportunity for decay to occur.
By comparing fruit sugar, cane sugar and honey, which are all common ingredients of sweet foods, we find that cane sugar lowers pH levels for the longest period, thus producing the greatest risk of the three. Approximately five minutes aftfter consuming cane sugar, pH levels drop to as little as pH 3.5. They then begin to rise slowly, but do not rise above pH 5.5 until at least 30 minutes have elapsed. By contrast, fruit sugar, which causes the mouth's acidity to fall to just above pH 4, poses a danger for a shorter period: tooth decay is unlikely 20 minutes after consumption. Honey appears an even less risky substance. Though acidity falls to about pH 4.75 within five minutes of consumption, it returns to above pH 5.5 in under fifteen minutes.
The implications, then, are that people who insist on eating sweet foods should be aware of the ingredients, and that fruit sugar or honey appear preferable to cane sugar.
Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information in the two graphs below.
The pie charts compare the highest level of education achieved by women in Someland across two years, 1945 and 1995. It can be clearly seen that women received a much higher level of education in Someland in 1995 than they did in 1945.
In 1945 only 30% of women completed their secondary education and 1% went on to a first degree. No women had completed post-graduate studies. This situation had changed radically by 1995. In 1995, 90% of women in Someland had completed secondary education and of those, half had graduated from an initial degree and 20% had gone on to postgraduate studies. At the other end of the scale we can see that by 1995 all girls were completing lower secondary, although 10% ended their schooling at this point. This is in stark contrast with 1945 when only 30% of girls completed primary school, 35% had no schooling at all and 35% only completed the third grade.
In conclusion, we can see that in the 50 years from 1945 to 1995 there have been huge positive developments to the education levels of women in Someland.
Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information in the table below.
The table shows how people in different age groups spend their leisure time in Someland over the course of a year. It can be clearly seen that the amount of leisure time available varies considerably across the age groups and that people of different age levels have very different ways of spending their leisure time.
According to the figures, as people age in Someland their social lives reduce. Teenagers and people in their twenties spend on average 500 hours per year on socialising and 350 hours of that time is with a group of more than 4 people. Although the total hours of socialising in their 30s, 40s, 50s and 60s is fairly constant (between 300-350), socialising with more than 4 people drops dramatically to 50 hours in the 30s and 40s age groups and only 25 from 50 years old. Group and individual exercise follow a similar pattern.
People of all ages spend a good part of their leisure time on entertainment such as TV/video viewing and cinema. In both cases, teenagers and retired people spend around twice as much time as those who are at working age. Home entertainment ranges from just over a thousand hours for teenagers and retired people and an average of 600 hours for everyone else. Cinema accounts for 100 hours of the teenagers and retired people’s leisure time and 25-50 hours for the rest.
In conclusion we can see there is a significant trend towards solitary and smaller group activities as people grow older and that teenagers and retired people spend a lot more time on entertainment than those of working age do.
The map below is of the town of Garlsdon. A new supermarket (S) is planned for the town. The map shows two possible sites for the supermarket.
Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant.
The first potential location (S1) is outside the town itself, and is sited just off the main road to the town of Hindon, lying 12 kms to the north-west. This site is in the countryside and so would be able to accommodate a lot of car parking. This would make it accessable to shoppers from both Hindon and Garlsdon who could travel by car. As it is also close to the railway line linking the who towns to Cransdon (25 km to the south-east), a potentially large number of shoppers would also be able to travel by train.
In contrast, the suggested location, S2, is right in the town centre, which would be good for local residents. Theorically the store could be accessed by road or rail from the surrounding towns, including Bransdon, but as the central area is a no-traffic zone, cars would be unable to park and access would be difficult.
Overall, neither site is appropriate for all the towns, but for customers in Cransdon, Hindon and Garlsdon, the out-of-town site (S1) would probably offer more advantages.
The diagram below shows the typical stages of consumer goods manufacturing, including the process by which information is fed back to earlier stages to enable adjustment.
Write a report for a university lecturer describing the process shown.
Most consumer goods go through a series of stages before they emerge as finished products ready for sale.
Raw materials and manufactured components comprise the initial physical input in the manufacturing process. Once obtained, these are stored for later assembly. But assembly first depends upon the production planning stage, where it is decided how and in what quantities the stored materials will be processed to create sufficient quantities of finished goods. The production planning stage itself follows the requirements of the goods' design stage that proceeds from extensive research. After assembly, the products are inspected and tested to maintain quality control l Those units that pass the inspection and testing stages are then packaged, despatched and offered for sale in retail outlets. The level of sales, which is the end point of the manufacturing process, helps determine production planning.
A product's design is not only the result of product research, but is also influenced by testing and market research. If the testing stage (after assembly and inspection) reveals unacceptable problems in the finished product, then adjustments will have to be made to the product's design. Similarly, market research, which examines the extent and nature of the demand for products, has the role of guiding product design to suit consumer demands which may change with time. Market research, while influenced by product sales, also serves to foster future sales by devising suitable advertising for the goods.
Thus the reality of consumer goods manufacturing goes well beyond a simple linear production process.
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